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Defectoscope research, ultrasonic control


Non-destructive testing methods are a group of research analysis, which provide information about the material properties of the object without depriving its utilitarian values. The overriding aim of the propreparatory studies NDT is above all the detection and assessment of defects having the nature of the material discontinuities. Application of non-destructive indicators is relating to justify primarily safety considerations and the economics of not-seen an accident. The more responsible object, the more severe are the effects of sudden failure.
The company ZMP holds a certificate of a subcontractor of the Polish Office of Technical Inspection. We have the ability to perform research using the method of ultrasonic and magnetic testing in the repair and modernization of equipment in subject of technical inspection. Modern equipment and years of experience acquired during the execution of service on many technical objects let us realize the basic objective of non-destructive testing, which is to provide information about the state of material, equipment, installation or building in various stages of their life ranging from manufacturing, through assembly, and ending with the exploitation.


The method uses a magnetic-particles scattering phenomena, magnetic field or magnetic permeability in the locations of the defects. Using the MT method we can successfully detected any defects in components made mainly of ferromagnetic materials, which are all constructional steel made with the exception of high-alloy steels (austenitic).


MT method is used mainly in research on the quality of different types of welds (including the fillet weld). Tests of this method can be regarded as independent or as a pre-examination before ultrasonic testing.


Ultrasonic testing uses the accompanying phenomenon to the propagation of ultrasonic waves in materials. This is the best known and widely used method of NDT group. The technique of ultrasonic testing is used mainly to detect material discontinuities, which are located deep under the surface of the material.


Our laboratory basically conducts ultrasonic testing using GE USM35 flaw detectors. They are widely recognized as the best in class. The principle of their operation is based on sending high-frequency sound waves through the material and analyzing the returning echo. The nature of the reflected waves makes it possible to determine the thickness of the material or to determine the presence of flaws, such as cracks or internal defects. Diagnostics comes down to the analysis of the results displayed in the form of A-SCAN.
The laboratory also has an Olympus OmniScan SXultrasonic flaw detector. This device enables both conventional UT tests and tests using the technique described in the literature as Phased Array.
Ultrasonic examinations using this technique require multi-transducer heads, giving the possibility of focusing the wave beam at a selected depth while controlling the size of the angle of incidence. In this way, it is possible to obtain graphical representations of discontinuities that are easier to interpret, which makes it much easier to distinguish significant indications from shape echoes. This is especially important in the study of welded joints.
Phased Array technology provides detailed and cross-sectional visualization of internal structures at high inspection speeds, becoming a powerful diagnostic tool.
It also offers archiving of collected data and the possibility of their subsequent analysis using integrated software. This significantly shortens the inspection time.
In addition, an important advantage of the Olympus OmniScan SX flaw detector is the ability to conduct research using a position encoder connected to the PAUT head. This feature allows the semi-automatic encoded tests, i.e. for precise determination of the position of the recorded indication relative to the reference point and precise dimensioning of defects in the scanning axis (subject to coding). It is therefore possible to very precisely synchronize the obtained indication results in the function of the coordinate defining the displacement of the probe.
This technique is used in various industry sectors, including the testing of welded joints, castings, forgings with complex shapes, composites and corrosion mapping.


Because of the concentration of our business in the area of rotary drum’s and paper machine’s service, we are specializing mainly in the non destructive testing of their components.
Carrying out comprehensive tests of rotary drums’ elements, we can determine condition of elements material, whose proper work has a decisive influence on the failure-free operation of the object. The tests are executed on: open gear components, shafts, rollers and live rings’ raceways. We also carry out ultrasonic thickness measurements of shell plate segments determining its degree of wear with possibility of additional discovery of sheet’s delamination.
For studies of paper machine’s elements we check mainly the status of elements like cylinder / roller, which during operation are exposed to significant loads. Investigations are mainly focused on: pins, heads and bolts linking heads with cylinder / shaft shell. We measure also the thickness of the cylindrical part made of casted iron. We also carry out studies of shafts of rotating machinery such as fans, pumps, crushers.
With regard to other technical facilities, we execute studies of shafts of various types of conveyors. Popular are also tests of the welding quality and ultrasonic measurements of pipelines wall thickness.


In the scope of our services there is also examination of the material structure. Metallography deals with macro and microscopic examination of the metals and alloys structure. This study is based on observations at the appropriate magnification of the prepared surface of the examined sample. This method, due to the necessity of preparation of microsection is a destructive test method. Observing microsections one can identify the alloy composition and determine the type of applied heat treatment as well as mechanical properties. Among the available meta-llographic techniques we employ spectral analysis with the use of steelscope. Steelscope analysis method is mainly based on visual observation of the spectrum bands, and it serves primarily evaluation of material’s chemical composition. Each chemical element of the material gives unique indication of strictly defined wavelengths. Identification of spectral lines of the substance is the main objective of qualitative spectral analysis, while the intensity of spectral lines in the spectrum determines the concentration of a given element in a quantitative manner.
In addition, in order to verify the correctness of above described studies (metallographic and with the use of steelscope) we perform also material static hardness measurement. We dispose of Brinell and Rockwell method.
Our research allows selecting a replacement materials, which have similar or even better mechanical properties than the material tested. We provide a consultancy service for the selection of these alternative materials.

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